20 September 2015 - 7 Tishri 5776 - ז' תשרי ה' אלפים תשע"ו
The Ninth of Av its meaning and restrictions Print E-mail

On Tisha, in English the Ninth B'Av, five national calamities occurred. It is a traditional day of mourning and fasting.

• During the time of Moses, Jews in the desert accepted the slanderous report of the 10 Spies, and the decree was issued forbidding them from entering the Land of Israel.

• The First Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians, led by Nebuchadnezzar. 100,000 Jews were slaughtered and millions more exiled.

• The Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, led by Titus. Some two million Jews died, and another one million were exiled.

• The Bar Kochba revolt was crushed by Roman Emperor Hadrian. The city of Betar – the Jews' last stand against the Romans – was captured and liquidated. Over 100,000 Jews were slaughtered.

• The Temple area and its surroundings were plowed under by the Roman general Turnus Rufus. Jerusalem was rebuilt as a pagan city – renamed Aelia Capitolina – and access was forbidden to Jews.

Other grave misfortunes throughout Jewish history occurred on the Ninth of Av, including:

• The Spanish Inquisition culminated with the expulsion of Jews from Spain on Tisha B'Av in 1492.

• World War One broke out on the eve of Tisha B'Av in 1914 when Germany declared war on Russia. German resentment from the war set the stage for the Holocaust.

• On the eve of Tisha B'Av 1942, the mass deportation began of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto, en route to Treblinka.

Restrictions on Tisha B'Av

• No eating or drinking until nightfall the following evening.

Pregnant and nursing women are also required to fast. If one suspects it could be harmful to the baby or mother, a rabbi should be consulted. Others who are old, weak, or ill should consult with a rabbi. Medicine may be taken on Tisha B'Av, preferably without water.

• Any bathing or washing, except for removing specific dirt. Upon rising in the morning, before prayers, or after using the bathroom, one washes only the fingers. Anointing oneself for pleasure. Deodorant is permitted.
• Having marital relations.
• Wearing leather shoes.
• Learning Torah, since this is a joyful activity. It is permitted to learn texts relevant to Tisha B'Av and mourning – e.g. the Book of Lamentations, Book of Job, parts of Tractate.
• Sitting no higher than a foot off the ground. After midday, one may sit on a chair.
• Not engaging in business or other distracting work.
• Refraining from greeting others or offering gifts.
• Avoiding idle chatter or leisure activities.
• Following Tisha B'Av, all normal activities may be resumed, except for the following which are delayed until midday of the 10th of Av, because the burning of the Temple continued through the 10th of Av:
• Haircuts and washing clothes. (When Tisha B'Av falls out on Thursday, these are permitted immediately following Tisha B'Av, in honour of the coming Shabbat.)
• Bathing. (When Tisha B'Av falls out on Thursday, bathing is permitted on Friday morning.)
• Eating meat and wine.
• Music and swimming. Prayer on Tisha B'Av
• Lights in the synagogue are dimmed, candles are lit, and the curtain is removed from the Ark. The cantor leads the prayers in a low, mournful voice.
• The Book of Eicha (Lamentations), Jeremiah's poetic lament over the destruction of Jerusalem and the First Temple, is read both at night and during the day.
• Following both the night and day service, special “Kinot” (elegies) are recited.
• In the morning, the Torah portion of Deuteronomy 4:25-40 is read, containing the prophecy regarding Israel's future iniquity and exile, followed by the Haftorah from Jeremiah describing the desolation of Zion.
• In the afternoon, Exodus 32:11-14 is read. This is followed by the Haftorah from Isaiah 55-56.
• Since Tallit and Tefi llin represent glory and decoration, they are not worn at Shacharit. Rather, they are worn at Mincha, as certain mourning restrictions are lifted.
• Birkat Kohanim is said only at Mincha, not at Shacharit.
• Prayers for comforting Zion and “Aneinu” are inserted into the Amidah prayer at Mincha.

Supplied by Aish.com

(Issue July/August 2009)

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